A Movement of Ideas

W Morris-book text

“Don’t copy any style at all, but make your own”  – William Morris

I have never had anyone tell me that they don’t like the designs of William Morris and his circle of artists/artisans, nor have I ever heard anyone complain that they are too ornate, too flowery or too pretty. You cannot deny the beauty of their complex patterns and rich colors. They transcend what usually would be considered merely decorative.

I don’t know if an interior decorator of today would choose a William Morris wallpaper pattern for a home that wasn’t undergoing some sort of period restoration, but in smaller amounts – calendars, cards, notebooks – the designs appear as delicate, ornate treasures. Somehow they combine the beauty and abundance of nature with the precision and control of design in a perfect balance.

A few weeks ago, my daughter and I took the train to the William Morris Gallery in Walthamstow, London. She is design student at Pratt in New York. This was kind of a pilgrimage for both of us. (Once again, I must apologize for the poor quality of some of the photos. I have no choice but to take them on the fly, and the lighting in this museum made it particularly hard to get good pictures. I hope that they will at least give you the feeling of being right there with me, looking over my shoulder, so to speak).

I knew of William Morris as a designer and craftsman, but I didn’t know his first fame came as a poet and writer.

He also was a translator, weaver, embroiderer, stained-glass artist, type designer, calligrapher, publisher, wood-carver, political activist –  and owner and manager of a highly successful interior design retail shop. Could he sing?

In the late 1800s, William Morris helped start what was to be known as the Arts and Crafts Movement; what he considered to be a  “movement of ideas’ rather than a distinct visual style. Members believed tin social reform, education, environmental sustainability and self-sufficiency, as well as hand-craftsmanship, designing from nature and sympathetic use of materials.

In addition, Morris believed that no one should design an object without a full understanding of how it was going to be produced, which explains why he was driven to master so many crafts himself.

Morris’s first wallpaper design was inspired by the rose trellis in his garden.

W Morris-Trellis wallpaper (1862)

You can see in this drawing how he drew and redrew as he revised his ideas, working the same piece until it was complete. He believed this approach was the best way to maintain the harmony and integrity of the work.

W Morris-Trellis wallpaper design (1862)

He hadn’t yet gained full confidence in his drawing abilities so he asked his friend and colleague Phillip Webb to draw the birds. He was 28 at that point.

Here are more of Morris’s drawings:

W Morris-Design for African Marigold textile (1876)W Morris-Lily and Pomegranate design for wallpaper (1886)W Morris-Wallpaper for Queen Victoria

As a printmaker, I can appreciate that Morris insisted that his wallpapers be hand-printed from carved wooden blocks. Even though the technique was slower and more arduous than machine-printing, the results were far better and thus were worth the extra effort. Printmakers are artisans at heart.

W Morris-Hand-carved woodblock was used by the M & Co printers to make Daffodil pattern

Morris also designed textiles and researched the use of organic pigments and dyes.

This copy of Herball or Generall Historie of Plants was Morris’ own book that he had studied since he was a child. This page shows the roots of the madder plant which produce the madder rose dye.

W Morris-herbal

Not only were the color tones of the organic pigments more natural and better suited to his designs, they caused less pollution than the aniline dyes that had become prevalent by then.

W Morris-Brother Rabbit printed cotton (designed 1882)W Morris-cloth detail W Morris-Strawberry Thief printed cotton (design registered in 1883)

At age 49, to the surprise of many of his colleagues and friends, Morris became a revolutionary socialist. He felt that the British government was an hypocrisy, taxing the poor while favoring the rich (sound familiar?). It bothered him that only the wealthy could afford the high-quality goods that Morris & Company produced. “To apply art to useful wares…is not a frivolity, but a part of the serious business of life.”

He became a well-recognized public figure.

Funny Folks-W Morris cartoon

Morris envisioned an “ecotopia” society, where people lived communally with no central government, private property or currency. He attended protests, gave lectures, and published books.

He founded the Kelmscott Press:

W Morris-Kelmscott frontispieceW Morris-PsycheW Morris-Troy type Parlement of Foules   W Morris-Amonges thise povre folk

His youngest daughter, May Morris, also became an accomplished designer and textile artist.

May Morris-Honeysuckle wallpaperMay Morris-embroidery detail

Morris & Co. also sold ceramic ware and tiles.

the Martin Brothers-bottle  William De Morgan-Bottle with design of cranes killing snakes (1888 - 1907) Sands End Pottery, Fulham, London, England   William De Morgan-Lion Rampant

What I have shown here is a very small sampling of what the William Morris Gallery has to offer. Next, my daughter and I hope to visit Kelmscott Manor in the Cotswolds. That will be another pilgrimage for another day!

11 responses to “A Movement of Ideas

  1. It is a true treat to travel to these places through your eyes. I loved the type.
    The first pot (orange and tan) looks Mexican to me – swirls of the world unite!

  2. What a great post, with stunning photos. I would actually love to have his work as wallpaper in my personal library.

    Thank you for taking us along on your pilgrimage.

    http://www.triskelereviews.com/

  3. You lucky duck!

  4. Thanks for all these pics. Be sure to also go out to The Red House, where Morris lived for a time with wife Janey and hung out with the pre-Rafaelites. It’s a National Trust property. It’s in Bexleyheath, a train ride outside London.

  5. If you ever plan to hop over to Ireland, you must visit the Chester Beatty Library. What an amazing homage to the book and book-illustrating. From religious manuscripts to the art of illumination. And admission is FREE!

  6. What a great show! (and a great post….) Thanks!

  7. Marvelous! Thank you!!

  8. I love seeing how artists get to their final version – thank you for your post. And I agree about how Morris is so ormnate and yet liveable-with (if you’ll excuse my dreadful way of putting it!). There’s a tiny bit of William Morris at Castle Howard (sadly not as much as there once was – http://www.morrissociety.org/publications/JWMS/SP95.11.2.Hartley.pdf ) – but let me know if you decide to investigate as I live very nearby!

  9. Pingback: Art Is Our Human Right | Books Around The Table

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